Saturday, March 14, 2020

5 Steps to Writing a Hassle-Free Literature Review

5 Steps to Writing a Hassle-Free Literature Review When youre tasked with writing a lengthy academic study such as a journal article, thesis or dissertation, a literature review will likely be a part of that process. The literature review portion of your research is perhaps one of the most difficult sections to write. A well-written literature review will provide a summary of the scholarly sources youve used in your research. It will also summarize the current knowledge and scholarship surrounding the topic youve chosen to study in more depth, including any patterns, themes, or gaps that are in the research. If the research you plan to conduct will fill any of these gaps, the literature review should mention that, as well.Depending on the type of writing that will be required, your literature review could be a separate chapter, or it could part of the introduction or part of the theoretical framework. In some cases, a literature review might be written on its own as a survey of scholarly knowledge on a topic. However, in either case, here are the five steps to writing a hassle-free literature review.A literature review is a survey of scholarly knowledge that has been published on a certain topic. Photo by Henry Be on Unsplash.Step 1- Narrow your topicOne of the first and easiest mistakes to make when writing a literature review is to start with a topic that is too broad. Since the literature review will provide a foundation for your research, it needs to be narrowed enough to provide a solid one.For example, lets say you want to research the topic of childhood obesity. Obviously, there will be hundreds of scholarly sources that focus on that topic, so trying to summarize all of them would be not only difficult- it would be useless for the purposes of your own research.However, you can break that topic down even further to narrow the scope of your research. For example, instead, you could research childhood obesity and social development among middle-school-aged children. With this narrowed topic, the scholarly research you find will include all (or most) of the important keywords of your research: childhood obesity, social development, middle school. That makes your search for pertinent, relevant research a much easier task.Step 2- Gather your sources and pick the right ones to useNow that you have a narrowed topic, step two will be much easier than it would have been otherwise. In this step, you find recent, relevant research that includes your keywords and informs your knowledge on the topic. While reading the most recent scholarly articles or books, youll begin to notice certain studies or theories that the authors consistently refer to as a foundation for their own study. This is usually a good indicator that you should include those previous studies and theories in your own literature review, to provide your readers with a summary of the most relevant ideas surrounding that topic.To put it simply- determining which sources you will include in your literature review is really a matter of: 1) knowing how to identify the important, foundational (landmark) studies that have been conducted and 2) knowing how to identify current, relevant studies.Landmark studiesIf youre researching in a field youve studied extensively already, youre likely to already know the relevant research that is important to note, otherwise known as landmark studies. For example, in the field of Education, the early childhood development research of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and John Dewey are foundational in almost any research related to a childs development. Therefore, many literature reviews will mention them and briefly summarize what they added to the scholarly knowledge foundational to the topic.Current studiesWhile its impossible to read everything thats published relating to a topic- even a narrow one- you can find the relevant research by noticing the attention its getting and the number of times its been cited in other studies. You can use several websites to discover how many time s an article has been cited and this article provides easy links and instructions on how to do this.However, just because an article or book has been often cited doesnt mean you have to use it for your own research. You can find other relevant articles by looking through abstracts and determining if the research is both credible and useful for your own. You should also use this opportunity to see if there is perhaps a gap in the research- something that needs to be explored that hasnt been thoroughly explored by other researchers. Or, is there a different approach you want to take in your own methodology that will close a gap or answer a question that is still out there in the scholarly writing available on your topic?Step 3- Find connections, patterns, disagreements, pivotal changes and gapsNow that youve determined which sources you plan to use, you can begin reading over them in more detail to look for connections, patterns, disagreements, pivotal changes and gaps in the literatu re. Its important at this step to find trends that keep showing up as you read, as well as themes that arise. Youll also want to note where different researchers agree or disagree, and why there is a discrepancy in their understanding or hypotheses.You might also find that a certain past study changed scholarly discourse in a major way. That would be a pivotal moment to note in your literature review, since it is foundational in the overall scholarship surrounding the topic.Finally, you want to find and acknowledge any gaps you note in the literature. For example, for our childhood obesity and social development among middle-school-aged children, you might find that none of the research youve come across seems to take into account comorbidity of obesity and mental health issues in middle-school-aged children. Therefore, its a gap in the research that you can address in your literature review and potentially fill in your research.Its important that you, as a researcher, find and ackn owledge any gaps you note in the literature. Photo by Bruno Figueiredo on Unsplash.Step 4- Determine how you will organize your literature reviewNow that you know which sources you plan to use to compile your literature review (and thus, inform your own research), its important to organize the summary of these sources to make your analysis easier for your reader to follow.ChronologicalThis is one of the easiest and most popular ways to organize a literature review. Its easy to do because you simply mention each source in the order it was published, beginning with the earlier, landmark studies. However, the problem with this organizational structure is its easy to just list your summaries, one after the other, without pointing out any patterns or themes that occur among them. Youll need to focus on showing how the scholarship has changed and evolved over the years, as well as mention any important turning points that might have occurred.TheoreticalSince the sources you have been read ing have all resulted in a theoretical analysis or hypothesis, you can organize your literature review from a theoretical standpoint, showing how the framework was built. If there is a certain theoretical approach to your topic of study that you prefer above others, this might be the best way for you to organize your literature review.ThematicThematic organization of your literature review is the best way to approach it if you want to point out various themes that have come up in your exploration of the topic. For example, returning to our previously mentioned topic, childhood obesity and social development among middle-school-aged children, we might find multiple themes that arise, such as forming friendships, self-confidence, bullying, and family bonds. If we want to study the topic within these four themes or parameters, a thematic-organized literature review will be the best bet.MethodologicalMethodological organization for your literature review will focus on the various method ologies used in prior studies and mention each based on that factor. For example, you might first look at quantitative studies that were done on the topic, then look at qualitative ones, comparing the results of both. Or, you might first analyze literature that shows empirical methodologies, then analyze a more theoretical approach.Step 5- Write your literature reviewNow that youve gone through the other steps, this should be the easy part. As you write, remember that your task is to summarize and synthesize all relevant scholarly work on your topic, while also analyzing any gaps, patterns, inconsistencies, or themes that emerge.Note that as you write, you need to remain as critical and objective as possible in your overview of literature. If you feel that there were biases and you have a substantial case to make with it, include your analysis on that fact. If you feel that certain studies had stronger methodologies or frameworks than others, mention that, as well. The point of a li terature review is to let your reader know that you have researched your topic in depth and have a credible, solid foundation from which to continue that study or pose hypotheses connected to it.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Influence of Perception on Interpersonal Communication Essay

Influence of Perception on Interpersonal Communication - Essay Example As noted by Wood (2010), there is a need to distinguish facts from inferences for interpersonal communication to be considered competent. The author clearly defined facts as â€Å"an objective statement based on observation; (while) an inference involves an interpretation that goes beyond the facts† (p. 85). In this regard, the essay aims to present instances when languages are used to accurately signify facts as contrasted to inferences. Through observing conversations with people one normally interacts with, the discourse would find and discuss instances when tentative language would be more accurate; and when there is a need to distinguish between fact and inferences, and to address them, as required. Using Tentative Language In addressing the requirements of becoming more sensitive to the difference between facts and inferences, one observed interpersonal communication that occurred within one’s family members and noted the following: In one instance, I asked my hus band to load the washer and empty the dryer. I specifically said: â€Å"Honey, I am still finishing up preparing for lunch. Would you please see that the washer is loaded and find out if the drying is likewise empty?† I proceeded preparing our meal and by the time I remembered what I asked my husband to do, I found out that nothing was done. I could have easily inferred based on one’s initial perception that â€Å"My God! Honey, you are such as irresponsible person. The tasks I requested you to do is so simple; yet, you did not comply! You are so insensitive and selfish!† By using tentative words, one could initially reflect that â€Å"my husband may be irresponsible or may be insensitive or selfish† so as not to treat the inference as a fact. However, by analyzing the situation, the fact is that the washer was not loaded and the dryer was not emptied. Now, one would like to know the reasons why these tasks were not complied as requested. Therefore, I ask ed my husband: â€Å"Honey, I told you earlier to please see that the washer is loaded and find out if the drying is likewise empty. How come you did not comply?† My husband replied: â€Å"Oh, I am so sorry dear. I did not hear what you said. I went out for a while this morning to take the garbage out. You must have thought I was still in the living room when you gave the instructions. I will do it now.† So, apparently, the reason why the tasks were not complied, as instructed was that my husband was not even there when I relayed the message. Had I barged and shouted the terms I inferred such as â€Å"irresponsible, insensitive and selfish† I would have definitely gone beyond the facts. Extending the Observation When the observation was extended to other people, the work setting is the most appropriate environment where facts and inferences abound. My husband relayed to me his experience in the workplace as he was requested by his boss to work with other personn el, as a team in complying with a new project of targeting new customers to increase their monthly sales. The boss specifically identified a colleague, Mr. X, to conduct a simple market research on a Friday afternoon at the nearby supermarket to determine if their products are fast moving and who their competitors are. The details are needed

Monday, February 10, 2020

The Case for the Metropolitan Insurance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Case for the Metropolitan Insurance - Essay Example But what good is the image when it is not properly stored Documentum serves as the file cabinet where the documents and images are arranged and stored. The introduction of the document imaging system and the establishing of the database Documentum has provided opportunities in to cut down costs in aspects of the business' operations. They are enumerated and discusses as follows: documents coming in everyday. One can just imagine the volume of storage space occupied by the microfiche images and equipment. File Cabinets, indexing materials and rooms must be provided for the storage of the images. Since microfiche images are not considered as "legal archives", there is really a need to provide storage and indexing mechanism for the paper documents. File folders, envelopes, cabinets, rooms and indexing materials represent a rather large cost to the business. Added to this is the labor cost associated with the people employed to attend and safeguard the documents and images. The Imaging system eliminated the need for microfiche images and paper document storage. Because of this, there is no more need to purchase filing and indexing materials. Provision for storage space such as rooms is no longer necessary. Furthermore, the pre-existing materials and rooms can be sold or used in other business works. ... Added to this is the labor cost associated with the people employed to attend and safeguard the documents and images. The Imaging system eliminated the need for microfiche images and paper document storage. Because of this, there is no more need to purchase filing and indexing materials. Provision for storage space such as rooms is no longer necessary. Furthermore, the pre-existing materials and rooms can be sold or used in other business works. The Metropolitan can also cut down labor costs as the system does not require many filing personnel. b. Maintenance Costs Paper documents and microfiche images can be corroded by environmental elements thereby reducing it to a useless material. This problem becomes more important since the insurance business operates in a very wide time frame. This temporal criterion makes it imperative that the documents are properly maintained. Furthermore, insects or animals may reside in the file cabinets and consume/ruin records. There is a need to purchase chemicals to prevent corrosion and animal destruction. Maintenance personnel must also be properly trained for them to be able to protect the documents. All of these represent a large capital cost for Metropolitan. Since the document's images are stored in the computerized database and since this is considered "legal archives", the paper documents need not be thoroughly taken cared of. Environmental and animal concerns are also eliminated. These improvements lessen the need for chemicals and maintenance personnel. 3B. Explain how the System shortens cycle time. The system also shortened cycle time because it eliminated the need for manual imaging of the pertinent documents. It can even image

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Investigating Basic Circuits Essay Example for Free

Investigating Basic Circuits Essay Introduction What is an electrical circuit? How can you manipulate components and design a circuit that will do what you want it to? This guided activity will introduce you to some components, tools, and concepts that are fundamental in electronics. It will allow you to investigate and discover: What are voltage, current, and resistance? How are they related to one another? What are some of the basic components that make up simple circuits and what do they do? What are the important characteristics of a circuit and how do I measure different parts of a circuit? How do I measure voltage in a circuit? How does the arrangement of components affect the characteristics of the circuit? How do I work safely with circuits? How can I use calculations to design circuits before I start creating one? Equipment Digital Logic Board (DLB) or breadboard (2) Light emitting diodes (LEDs) (2) 330 Ohm resistors (orange/orange/brown/gold or silver) Digital multimeter (DMM) #22 Gauge solid wire Procedure Follow the instructions to create different types of circuits. As you create each circuit, you will be asked to make measurements and record observations to gain understanding about the circuit and its components. Let us begin by investigating two components that are commonly used in circuits. They are resistors and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Part A: Creating a Circuit and Measuring a Circuit’s Properties 1. A Simple Circuit Arrange the components according to the picture shown. You will need to plug the USB cable from the myDAQ into your computer to provide power to the Protoboard. Notice that the LED has a flat notch on one side. Make sure the notch is  initially oriented on the bottom as shown in the picture. In this arrangement, the flow of conventional current is from the top (5V) to the bottom (0V) through the resistor and the LED. What do you think the role is of the resistor in this circuit? (1a) Components on a Breadboard (1b) Circuit Diagram In a circuit, the flow of conventonal current can be described as a positive charge moving through a complete circuit path (VCC to GND). Can you trace the flow of conventional current in both of the above pictures? 2. With the LED illuminated, flip the direction of the LED on the breadboard (notch on top now), and then flip it back to its original position (notch on bottom). What does your observation tell you about diodes (and LEDs)? 3. Using the DMM to Measure Values Making sure that the RED lead is plugged into (V) and the black lead is plugged into (COM) on the Digital Multi-Meter (DMM), turn the DMM on to direct current voltage range 0-600V or first click (see 3a). Place the RED DMM lead on the top of the resistor, and the black lead on the bottom of the LED. Note the reading on the DMM. Now switch the DMM leads. (3a) Digital Multimeter DMM(3b) Reading voltage across the resistor and LED What did you notice about the value on the DMM when you switched the leads? 4. Now place the DMM leads across the circuit as you did initially in picture (3b) and turn the DMM to the next smallest voltage range (0-200V). You may need a classmate to help you. Note the value on the DMM and then turn one more click to the next smallest ranges (0-20V). What is happening on the display with each click, as the range you are measuring gets smaller and smaller? 5. Turn one last click of the DMM to read the range (0-2V). What happened and why? What was the most accurate measurement were you able to make of the voltage across the resistor and LED? 6. Set the DMM to the range that will give you the most accurate voltage  measurement and touch the lead across the two ends of the red wire. Note the reading on the DMM. Now touch the leads across the two ends of the black wire. Note the reading. (6a) (6b) Voltage (ΔV=Vf-Vi) is a description of a components potential to do work. (1 volt means the component could do 1 joule of work for every coulomb of charge that passes though it (1V= 1J/1C). In order for a component to do work, there must be a difference in the potential across the component to do work (often called a potential difference). Why do you think the reading was the same for both of these sections of the circuit? What you have just observed is exactly why birds can land on high power lines unharmed. 7. In Step 3 you measured the voltage across the resistor and the LED combined. Now touch the leads across both ends of the resistor. Note the reading on the DMM. (a) Voltage across LED and Resistor (b) Voltage across Resistor Only Can you guess the reading you will see when you touch the DMM leads across the LED only? Were you correct? Why did you guess that value? 8. You might be asking why we need a resistor in this circuit. Is it doing any work? Some components have limitations on how much electrical current can pass through them or how much voltage they should have across them. We can calculate the relationships between Voltage, Current, and Resistance for a component using Ohm’ Law (V=IR). Let’s assume the voltage you saw across the 330â„ ¦ resistor was roughly 3V when the circuit was active. What is the conventional current (measured in Amps) traveling through the resistor according to Ohm’s Law? In this arrangement, the electrical current has only one path through the components (top to bottom in the picture). These components can be described as being in series with each other. The amount of current flowing through an LED must each be equal in the same path. Warning: Do not attempt to verify the current in the circuit at this time using the DMM. While the DMM can  handle this amount of current, you must learn how to use the ammeter portion of the DMM properly to protect it from blowing a fuse. Shorting voltage sources is dangerous and can damage the DMM. Part B: Series and Parallel Circuits 9. These two identical 330â„ ¦ resistors are in series with each other. There is only one path through the circuit from the power source to the ground. In this diagram, the power source is a 9V battery. One end of the battery has 9V of potential to do work (positive terminal-top). The other end of the battery has zero potential to do work (negative terminal/ground-bottom). (a) Based on your observations, what would you expect the voltage read if you touched the DMM across both R1 and R2? (b) Due to the fact that R1 and R2 are identical, what would you guess is the voltage across each resistor is individually? Why? (c) We can actually replace these two resistors with one resistor that would have the same impact on the circuit. (This theoretical resistor is called an equivalent resistor). What would the value of this equivalent resistor have to be in Ohms (â„ ¦)? 10. Create this series circuit on your breadboard. With both LEDs illuminated, remove one of the LEDs from the circuit path. What happened and why? 11. You can try 3 LEDs in series but none will light up. Why do you think that is? 12. Components in a circuit can also be arranged in parallel. Create this parallel circuit on your breadboard. With both LEDs illuminated, what happens if you remove one of the LEDS from the circuit path? 13. Using the diagram shown to you in Step 9 for series circuit as a reference, can you draw a circuit diagram showing 2 resistors in parallel?  (Draw circuit below) 14. In a series circuit all component have the same current (Amps) flowing them (even if the resistors have different values. That is not the case for components in parallel with each other. What do components in parallel share in common? 15. Based on your observations and what you have learned about parallel circuits, use Ohm’s Law (V=IR) to calculate the current in each of the 3 resistors? Imagine you add more two more resistors (R4 and R5) in parallel. For each new path to the battery you create, what do you think that does to the total amount of current going into and out of the battery? Conclusion 1. Describe the proper way to place the DMM leads and the steps you use to attain the most precise measurement value for voltage across components using a Digital Multimeter (DMM). 2. If the value on the DMM is negative, what does that tell you about the orientation of the DMM leads in relation to the flow of conventional current? 3. LEDs and resistors transfer electrical energy into light and thermal energy. What is an important characteristic about LEDs (and diodes) that make it unique compared to a resistor? 4. In your own words, describe what it means for components to be in series with each other. What characteristic do components in a series always share in common? (Voltage, Current, or Resistance) 5. In your own words, describe what it means for components to be in parallel with each other. What characteristic do components in parallel always share in common? (Voltage, Current, or Resistance) Going Further 6. In this investigation you were introduced to the idea of equivalent resistance (replacing multiple resistors in series with one that does the same job. Equivalent resistance for a series circuits can be shown as a simple mathematical expression. How would you express this relationship to the total resistance in the circuit mathematically? 7. A theoretical equivalent resistor can be placed in parallel circuits and shown mathematically as well. This relationship is a little less straight forward than equivalent resistance in series circuits. With a little research, can you determine how the equivalent resistance for this parallel circuit would be expressed mathematically? We will expand our understanding on these concepts in later activities.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Violence in Literature Essay -- Violence Blood Violent Movie Literatur

Violence in Literature â€Å"I’m taking you to the bank, Senator Trent. To the blood bank.† This line is spoken by a character played by Steven Segal in the movie Hard to Kill, a movie remarkably similar to every other motion picture Segal has ever touched, and depressingly reflective of a larger cultural trend. In Segal’s movies, characters with names like â€Å"Orin Boyd† and â€Å"Nico Toscani† boast body counts and a shared insatiable thirst for vengeance. Death becomes a prop employed to dispatch central characters, and a cycle of one-upmanship ensues – we saw Segal rip someone’s throat out in Under Siege, so the next movie has to be more ridiculous in its sheer level of violence to be marketable. In 1999, it came as no real shock to viewers when Segal’s character stabbed a Nazi sympathizer in the neck with a broken wine glass. The reality is that technology gives us the means to transmit images and messages of unparalleled intensity, and as we do that, reality is recursively recreated. As artists and media moguls say less, the y attempt to compensate through force, resulting in a constant barrage of deafening sound that amounts to nothing more than noise or visuals so gaudy and exaggerated that the thin shreds of meaning behind them are utterly lost. In this context, death is watered down until it becomes comfortably palpable. Theatres full of families cheer when the hero shoots the bad guy in an action movie, but it never crosses a single mind that a murder has taken place. Viewers wear expressions of smug satisfaction when a crooked lawyer is double-crossed, but the underlying web of lies fazes nobody. In this context, authors have to shout over the noise to communicate the true evils that float between humans. There is no longer ... ...organization in which individually is sacrificed for the sake of an ideal (Nazism, in this case), it’s easy for a smaller group to become victimized. That group is doubly under attack from without and within, and even after the battle is apparently over, they are still losing. The inherent threat in such organizational bodies has to be recognized by humanity and ingrained into the memories of future generations to ensure that these mistakes aren’t repeated. Bringing distressing images and situations the forefront of art isn’t gimmicky, and it isn’t entertaining. It’s indispensable. When punches are held the point is only half-made. Vividly bringing to life the tragedies of the world is the only way in which we can come to understand them with any validity, and understanding these heartrending circumstances is the only means through which we can learn from them.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Ethical Actions Worksheet Essay

†¢ Was there anything in either the University Of Phoenix Student Code Of Conduct or the Student Code of Academic Integrity that surprised you? If so, what was it? Why were you surprised? If not, why not? There was nothing surprising about the University Of Phoenix Code Of Conduct or the Student Code of Academic integrity. I am familiar with having codes of conduct and codes of integrity. These same principles are used on the job. They let us know what is adequate and what is not acceptable. Codes help remind us that truth and integrity help to contribute to a non hostile environment, control dishonest actions or infringe on the rights of others. The University Of Phoenix Student Code Of Conduct and the Student Code of Academic Integrity assist in creating a safe and positive work all students. †¢ What did you learn about the behaviors considered important for an ethical learner or student in the University of Phoenix learning community? I have learned that being an ethical learner requires honesty. We should behave in a proper manner and make the correct choices when doing our work. Cheating and dishonesty should never be accepted even if you are falling behind with your school assignments. I have also that when you cheat you are only cheating yourself out of the full learning experiences that you are paying for and that it can form bad habits that can hurt you later on in life. †¢ Why are the Student Code of Conduct and Student Code of Academic Integrity important to you and the University of Phoenix learning community? The Student Code of Academic Integrity is important in the learning environment because it gives a set of guidelines for any educational institution. Academic goals cannot be met without following the standards set by the Student Code of Conduct or the Student Code of Academic Integrity. Acts of dishonesty not only undermine the learning process it also disadvantages students who earn credit honestly. It is important that members of the community share a common interest in maintaining the integrity the student code on campus.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Outline and Assess Marxist Explanations of the Causes of...

Outline and assess Marxist explanations of the causes of crime (50 marks) It is to a large extent that Marxism is a useful theory in explaining the causes of crime. This is because it highlights the inequalities in society and how the ruling class owns the means of production. This fails to show reasons why not everyone is facing status frustration and lower income turn to crime. One way in which Marxism is a useful theory for explaining the causes of crime is the concept of capitalism, criminogenic capitalism. Criminogenic capitalism is based on the exploitation of the working class- using them for a means to an end. Crime is not confined to the working class, greed and self interest cause white collar crimes such as tax evasion and†¦show more content†¦Chambliss (1979) argued that working class would try to increase wages and working conditions over a period of time. And the ruling class passed a law to limit wages paid to labourers. A more reason example is the government legislation enforcing benefit fraud. This is more of a working class crime. However, Functionalists challenge the concept of status frustration and argue that the laws are made for the good of everyone and that for society to work well it is to avoid anomie. This analysis shows that Marxism is useful to a large extent as it can be shown that there is seen to be a level of status frustration. One way that Marxism isn’t a useful theory is that the left realists believe that most working class crime is committed against the working class. This means that it’s not because of laws that the working class are going out to commit crimes. This means that more working class people are going to get into fights with one another over conflict of interests. This analysis shows that Marxism isn’t useful as it can be showed that crime is about conflicts of interests. Another way that Marxism isn’t useful is that functionalists believe that the reason for crime is that it’s inevitable. Durkeim (1893) believed that crime and deviance were the product of a lack of attachment to the prevailing consensus over collective values. It is impossible for everyone to have the same values. As people’s actions areShow MoreRelatedOutline and Assess Marxist Explanations of Crime1208 Words   |  5 PagesOutline and assess Marxist explanations of crime Marxist and neo-Marxist approaches and explanations of crime are arguably some of the most controversial, for the reason that they state that it is the ruling class that is responsible for criminalising the working classes, which goes directly against what official statistics and Functionalists believe. 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